The First World War was a conflict which was not only fought in the battle-torn lands, skies or seas of Flanders, Serbia, Egypt, Italy or Turkey, but also in the factories, kitchens and fields on the home front.
This conference seeks to explore how First World War was experienced in industry, mining, agriculture, shops, pubs and homes of the Midlands.
EVENT: Remembering the WW1 Home Front
DATE: 11 March 2017
TIME: 10am – 3.30pm
LOCATION: Museum of Carpet, Stour Vale Mill, Green Street, Kidderminster DY10 1AZ
When the servicemen went to war other men, women and children were left behind to worry, wait and work in their homes, towns and villages. Bombing, labour crisis, government restrictions and food shortages meant homes were not immune from danger and disruption.
There will also be plenty of opportunity during the day to explore the Museum of Carpet itself, and to view exhibitions and displays of the WW1 Home Front research being carried out by a range of community heritage project teams.
BOOKING DETAILS available on Eventbrite
FULL PROGRAMME: remembering-ww1-home-front_programme-draft
John Martin, Professor of Agrarian History, De Montfort University
Feeding the Population in the First World War: Case Study of Leicestershire
An exploration of how Britain’s extensive pre-war system of pastoral farming was replaced by a direct focus on producing arable crops, especially wheat and potatoes, accompanied by the wartime introduction of locally based initiatives to ration food, which became the precursor of the national food rationing system in 1918. By examining an array of contemporary newspaper and magazine reports from Leicestershire, along with published and oral memoirs, this study will enhance our regional understanding of this crucially neglected aspect of the efforts undertaken to feed the population during the ‘Great War.’
Karen Hunt, Professor Emerita Modern British History, Keele University
Maskery’s bakers, Leek: a window onto the Midlands’ home front
This paper begins with a single image of seven bakery workers, dressed in their work clothes, found amongst the notes prepared by a firm of Leek solicitors to defend conscripted men who sought exemption from military service by appealing to Local Military Service Tribunals. Across each man’s image had been written a statement: ‘Gone – replaced by a female’ or ‘Gone – in Egypt with the colours’ or ‘Reject’. Exploring the stories that sit behind this glimpse of the male workforce of Maskery’s, confectioners and bakers, a long-standing Leek family business, at the outbreak of war, reveals how a firm in a provincial town responded to the challenges and opportunities of the new and unpredictable demands of ‘total war’ and shows how apparently unpromising sources can be used to reconstruct daily life on the Midlands home front.
Dr Sally Dickson, Kidderminster and District Archaeological and Historical Society
Working, Spending and Caring: Kidderminster’s Women in the First World War
Dr Dickson will examine how, as Kidderminster men went to war, local women took on a multiplicity of roles. Many already worked in the town’s carpet industry but their opportunities to earn rapidly expanded. The carpet union allowed women to become weavers; engineering firms, like Castle Motor Company, used female labour to produce armaments; and other women were needed to keep local shops, businesses, food production and infrastructure going.
Postgraduate Students Panel
- Anna Muggeridge University of Worcester – Class, gender and morality in the Tipperary Rooms of Walsall
- Hayley Carter, University of Worcester – ‘You love him but what are you doing for him?’ A woman’s caring war work
- Simon McNeill-Ritchie, University of Cambridge – ‘Free from anxiety, in comfort and in decency’ Maintaining homes fit for heroes in the West Midlands during WW1
Panel on WW1 Home Front community heritage projects including:
- Maureen Spinks, Badsey Local History Society – Ethel Narcisse Sladden of Badsey, organiser, nurse and volunteer: a life through letters
- Susanne Atkin, independent researcher – The wartime work of Lady Deerhurst
- Feckenham WW1 Project – Sweet Power of Song: commemorating the Home Front creatively
- Elise Turner Development Officer, HLF West Midlands – An overview of the impact of HLF-funded WW1 Then & Now activity in the Midlands
EVENT: Volunteers and Voters: World War 1 and its legacy for Worcestershire Women
WHEN: Wednesday, 18 January 2017, 6–7pm
WHERE: The HIVE – Worcester
World War 1 enabled a number of Worcestershire women to develop their skills and spheres of influence through voluntary work and prepared them to use their newly acquired vote in 1918.
This talk and exhibition, by University of Worcester lecturer Professor Maggie Andrews, explores the legacy of World War 1 for women such as Lady Isabelle Margesson, Mrs Hooper, Mary Pakington and Mrs Rusher who became Justices of the Peace, ran women’s organisations, wrote plays or campaigned for improvements in maternal and child welfare in the inter-war years.
This event is free of charge but booking is recommended.
Light refreshments are provided at the start of the event.
BOOKING available on the Hive website
CONFERENCE: Volunteers and Voters: The First World War and its Legacy
WHEN: 12 November 2016, 10am-4pm
WHERE: University of Worcester, St Johns Campus
BOOKING: available on Eventbrite
A conference exploring how women’s voluntary involvement in charities and organizations during World War One led them to shape, organise and influence other women’s lives during the conflict and in the years that followed, when women were first enfranchised. The conference will also include an exhibition on the lives of several Worcestershire Volunteers & Voters, 1914-1939.
The provisional programme currently includes the following:
- The Voters and Volunteers Project, Prof Maggie Andrews, University of Worcester
- ‘Women and the Brave New World of Communal Dining, 1917-1919’, Dr Bryce Evans, Liverpool Hope University
- ‘Fundraisers and Tea-Makers: The pre- and post-war roles of Glasgow Orangewomen’, Dr Deborah Butcher, University of Glasgow
- ‘Creating a Transatlantic Authority: A Canadian Woman in London, 1914-1918’, Dr Elizabeth Kirkland, Dawson College, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
- ‘The First World War background of Devon’s early women magistrates, with particular reference to service within the Devonshire Red Cross’, Dr Julia Neville, Exeter University
- ‘Women and Lancashire Conservatism between the Wars’, Dr Neil Fleming, University of Worcester
- Rural women, volunteer networks and the politics of food production during the First World War: The Women’s War Agricultural Committees’ Dr Nicola Verdon, Sheffield Hallam University
- ‘To represent all the women of the city: Catharine Albright and the Birmingham Community Club’ Dr Siȃn Roberts, University of Worcester
- ‘Voters and the Voteless: The 1918 franchise and working-class women in Birmingham’ Anna Muggeridge, University of Worcester
This event is free to volunteers running HLF-funded and community heritage projects. It is part of the Volunteers and Voters Project and is supported by the Voices of War and Peace (AHRC- funded World War Engagement Centre). Places are limited so you must book in advance.
Prior to the mid-20th century, the administration of pain relief for women in childbirth was confined to the wealthy or the morally unimpeached. Lucy Baldwin, who lost one child at birth and suffered difficulties in delivering her other 6 children, was an ardent campaigner for womens’ rights to analgesia and improved standards of maternity care.
The following extract about the provision of maternity care to working class women, is from Childbirth in the UK: suffering and citizenship before the 1950s, an article in the Lancet by Joanna Bourke of the Department of History, Birkbeck College, University of London (Vol 383, 12 April 2014)
The women privileged enough to be given prompt relief were, of course, those who could afford it. It was a privilege, not a right. In Britain these attitudes began to change after the First World War, and accelerated from the 1930s and late 1940s. Pronatalist concerns about the declining birth rate and the dramatic rise in hospital births were important reasons for the shift. But public opinion, lobbying, and ideas about the rights of citizens were also important. The rapidity with which these changes took place is striking.
In the 1930s, Lucy Baldwin, a prominent member of the National Birthday Trust Fund and wife of the leader of the Conservative Party, let slip that she intended to mention the need to alleviate women’s pain in childbirth on the radio. The committee of the Trust, which was formed in 1928 with a mission to improve the lives of women, responded with uproar and begged Baldwin to desist, which she did. Yet, within 10 years, it seemed like everyone was talking about agonising contractions, split perineums, and episiotomies. In 1949, Conservative Member of Parliament Peter Thorneycroft even introduced a private member’s bill into Parliament, calling for accessible pain relief for women giving birth. Whilst Labour MP Leah Manning announced to Parliament that if male MPs gave birth, they would ensure that there was something more than “a towel…to pull on”.
Newspapers even published strident demands from women demanding pain relief. A letter published in the Gloucestershire Echo in 1942 and signed by “Six Expectant Mothers” complained that “any Cheltonian, rich enough to pay for [pain relief] can have it”, but the “poorer class” were “damned”. The war had changed their expectations. They protested the fact that:
“If a man wants a tooth out he has to have gas or cocaine. A soldier on the battlefield, when in great pain, has morphia administered to him. But a poor woman in the throes of childbirth; what does she get? Queen Victoria had her whiff of analgesics for all her confinements and what is good enough for Queen Victoria is good enough for SIX EXPECTANT MOTHERS OF CHELTENHAM.”
Women’s organisations across the country began lobbying their MPs and pain relief in childbirth was much discussed in debates about the National Health Service. As a result of changing attitudes—and not only of women but physicians and midwives as well—the proportion of women receiving pain relief in childbirth rocketed. In 1946, 68% of women giving birth in Britain had no form of analgesic whatsoever; this figure had halved—34%—within a decade, and then stabilised at about 2% in the 1970s and 1980s.
Read the full article: Childbirth in the UK: suffering and citizenship before the 1950s, an article in the Lancet by Joanna Bourke of the Department of History, Birkbeck College, University of London (Vol 383, 12 April 2014)
Edith Woodman Hooper (1868-1925) was the wife of a prominent Pershore fruit grower, Geoffrey Fielder Hooper.
Edith was born in Walton le Dale in 1868 to Frances and Thomas Wilson, solicitor and Deputy Clerk of the Peace for Lancashire. The family lived at Cooper Hill, Walton le Dale, Preston, Lancashire, where Edith was one of 9 children (6 girls and 3 boys) including her twin, Gertrude Woodman Wilson.
Her father, Thomas, was a wealthy solicitor who sent his eldest son, Thomas Horrocks Wilson, to Charterhouse then Oxford. Cooper Hill was one of the largest houses in the town and the former home of General John Burgoyne, Preston M.P. 1768-92. (John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))
It appears from the 1881 census that the girls were educated at home by a governess, Agnes Andrews. The household at this time included a nurse, cook, parlourmaid, under-housemaid and kitchenmaid.
Prior to the birth of the youngest son Francis, the family moved to Highwood in Walton le Dale, another of the most prominent houses in the area. According to the 1891 census, Thomas Sr had retired and the household now included both a male and a female sick nurse, a nurse/domestic, a waitress, a cook, a housemaid and a kitchenmaid. Edith, Gertrude, Maud and Francis were still living at home at this time.
It is possible that the nursing staff were for Thomas, who apparently died in 1895. The years immediately following Thomas’ death were busy ones for the family, according to information garnered from Ancestry.co.uk:
1896 – Edith’s twin sister Gertrude married solicitor, Henry Hamer in Preston le Dale on 11 June 1896. Hamer was the son of the Town Clerk of Preston. The couple moved to Rossett, Feltham Avenue, East Molesey, Surrey, where they had a son, also called Henry, who was baptised in St Paul’s, East Molesey, on 30 June 1897. Henry Sr worked as a solicitor at Grays Inn Court, London
1898 – Eldest son, Thomas Horrocks married Ethel Jennings in London
1899 – Younger daughter Maud married Harvey Broadbent in Morpeth
1900 – Henry Hamer Sr died on 29 January 1900 and, according to the probate register, left £3184.14s.10d to his widow, Gertrude. Once widowed, Gertrude moved back in with her mother.
In the 1901 census, Edith is listed as residing with her mother at Stobhill, Malvern Wells, Worcestershire. The other family members living with them at this time are her sister Gertrude and nephew, Henry Hamer Jr, and Emily and Mary, the two daughters of her older sister Mary Constance Flowerdew. Once again, the household includes a governess, nurse/domestic, cook and housemaid.
On 26 September 1901, Edith married Geoffrey Fielder Hooper of The Croft, Pershore, and moved out of the house. She is listed as residing at The Croft in the 1911 census, whilst her mother Frances, and twin sister, Gertrude, lived at 4 St Mary’s Terrace, London Road, Worcester.
ARTICLE BY Professor Maggie Andrews, University of Worcester for Voices of War & Peace: The Great War & Its Legacy
The greatest legacy of the First World War for rural woman was the Women’s Institute Movement in Britain.
The WI was originally founded in 1897 Canada and it was a Canadian, Mrs Alfred Watt, better known as Madge, who promoted the organisation supported by the Board of Agriculture, with the aim of improving the nation’s food supplies. For as it was noted:
Probably there is no woman who leads a more cramped, unattractive life than the countrywoman. In most villages there are no amusements, no interests, nothing outside the little home and the garden. But the countrywoman has become a very valuable asset to the nation. But for her, in many villages throughout the country, there would be no one to care for the gardens and allotments
(Coventry Evening Standard, 11 August 1917).
During the conflict, the WI endeavored to assist those with cottage gardens, allotments, market gardens and farms to grow more food and in order to prevent waste – to either preserve this food or sell their excess to other housewives through WI stalls. Women were encouraged to work on the land, run pig and rabbit clubs, collect herbs, set-up toy making and other rural industries organise soup kitchens and cookery demonstrations.
Mrs Watt started the first Institutes in Wales and in Sussex in 1915 and the following year visited Worcestershire, where her ideas were favorably received by a number of forceful, confident and often titled women. One of these was Lady Isabel Margesson of Barnt Green, where the first WI in the county was founded. Lady Isabel and her daughter, Catherine, like a number of initial WI enthusiasts, had been suffragettes; indeed, Isabel chaired a meeting in Glasgow in September 1914 at which Mrs Pankhurst had been arrested amidst ‘an outrage’, which bordered on a riot. By 1916, Isabel and Catherine were busy organising women to work on the land or in rural industries and to develop good parenting skills, and correctly saw the WI as aligned to these causes. In November of 1916, Mrs Watt was invited to Pershore to set up what is now the oldest WI in Worcestershire; she spoke enthusiastically to a crowded room of:
the aims and objectives of Women’s Institutes, which she said were to study domestic economy, provide a centre for educational and social intercourse encourage home and local industry, develop co-operative enterprises, and stimulate interest in the agricultural industry
(Worcester Herald Saturday, 25 November 1916).
The women who attended the very first meeting of Pershore WI were from a range of social backgrounds. Their ages varied, the majority were married, some widowed and others were single. Mrs Ferris’s husband was a market gardener’s labourer, whilst Mrs Gregory was married to a night watchman; Miss Roberts had retired from a life in domestic service and Mrs Russell was a charwoman. Predictably the role of Honorary President fell to a representative of the landed aristocracy: Virginia, Viscountess Deerhurst, who lived at Pirton Court and was wife to Lord Coventry’s eldest son and heir and chair of the County Agricultural Committee.
The first members of the Pershore WI committee came from the more middling, professional classes in the town. They included the wives of two doctors, a vet, the vicar and some of the wealthier fruit farmers. Many were already involved in civic and voluntary organisations in the town. The President, Mrs Rusher, lived with her doctor husband in a substantial house called The Paddocks on Worcester Street, whilst the role of Treasurer was allocated to the vet’s wife, Mrs Jenny Rae Lees, who lived on Bridge Street. Committee member Mrs Phillips was the vicar’s wife and had for many years been a nurse at the Cottage Hospital. Mrs Edith Hooper, Branch Secretary, was married to Geoffrey Hooper a successful market gardener whose business and community connections were numerous, including membership of the Pershore Abbey Restoration Committee prior to the war. Edith was herself involved with a number of charities including the Soldiers, Sailors and Families Association (SSAFA), which looked after the welfare of wives and families of those in the services. There were also women of more modest means on the committee such as Mrs Rosa Janet Edwards, wife of a Post Office clerk, or Miss Gertrude Anne Chick, a 39 year-old spinster, who lived in Wisteria Cottage on Bridge Street and earned her living as a dressmaker.
The drive to increase food production led Pershore WI to form pig and rabbit clubs, grow herbs, procure copies of potato recipes and arrange cookery demonstrations in Pershore and surrounding villages including Wyre, Wick and Defford in 1918. Miss Roberts, a retired domestic servant and WI member, served on the local Food Control Committee and the WI also worked with the Women’s War Agricultural Committee to provide housewives with jars for making jam, seed potatoes and seeds to grow vegetables. Pershore WI also encouraged women to take up rural industries and crafts; organising demonstrations, instruction and competitions in: basket-making, hat trimming, needlework and co-operative boot mending which both instruction and tools and leather being procured for women to use. The money housewives saved mending the family footwear convinced many husbands that much was to be gained by their wives becoming members of the WI. Their craft activities were also used to support men at the front: women sewed and sent keepsakes and the WI obtained wool to knit garments and fabric to make shirts for men in the Worcestershire Regiment.
For many housewives the support, advice and help of the Women’s Institute was very welcome; little wonder that this organisation, not only survived but thrived in the post-war era providing a social hub and activities for women, particularly when the WI’s own hall opened in Priest Lane in October 1921.
Pershore Women’s Institute is now the oldest surviving WI in Worcestershire and, in 1916, was one of the very first branches to be formed in England.
The Women’s Institute Movement was originally founded in 1897 by Adelaide Hoodless in Stoney Creek in Canada, and swiftly aligned with the British Columbia Department of Agriculture who saw it as a means of organising women to improve rural food production and living conditions. Amongst the organization’s early executive officers was Mrs Madge Watt, of Collingwood, Ontario, a well-connected former professional journalist and campaigner for women’s rights. In 1913, to avoid the scandal that surrounded her husband Alfred’s suicide, Madge and her two sons sailed to England where she set about trying to persuade influential groups, including the government, that rural food production, preservation and preparation could be improved by the formation of Women’s Institutes.
Although she made little headway in peacetime, the outbreak of war provided Mrs Watt with an advantage: national concerns over the food supply persuaded first the Agricultural Organisation Society and then the Board of Agriculture to employ her to promote Women’s Institutes.
In 1915, Mrs Watt formed the very first British Women’s Institutes in Wales and in Sussex, portraying the WI in her speeches as a means of enabling women to grow more food by working on the land and cultivating their gardens. The WI motto ‘For Home and Country’ linked everyday domestic life to national interests and chimed well with the wartime ethos that the many tasks women undertook in their homes contributed to the war effort. Mrs Watt encouraged all members to ask: ‘What is my home, my garden, my farm doing for my Country?
With the support of the Coventrys of Croome Park and Geoffrey Fielder Hooper, a wealthy and well-connected market gardener in Pershore, Mrs Watt was invited to Pershore in the November of 1916 to set up a WI. The Worcester Herald reported the very first gathering of the Pershore Women’s Institute:
A meeting under the auspices of the Agricultural Organisation Society [A.O.S.] and Worcestershire War Agricultural Committee was held at the Masonic Hall on Tuesday night [21 November], where a discussion took place regarding the possibility of forming a Women’s Institute in the town.
The room was packed and much interest was shown in the proposed scheme, Viscountess Deerhurst (chairman of the War Agricultural Ladies Sub-Committee) was announced to preside, but was unavoidably prevented from doing so. Mrs Geoffrey F. Hooper, who took her ladyship’s place, spoke on the paramount need of increased food production, and paid a warm tribute to the good work which the Ladies Committee were doing in training, helping and encouraging women to work on the land. ‘We had got to use all possible man-power to thrash our enemies, and we should have to utilise all possible women-power to take the place of the men in the fields of industry’. She quoted a letter from the Earl of Crawford, president of the Board of Agriculture, who said that ‘we should have to depend entirely upon ourselves. We must make every use of lawful and honorable agencies at our command, and of these the help of women must be placed in the first rank. There was plenty of work on farms and in gardens, which women could do, and which in various parts of the country they were doing with the greatest success’.
An address was given by Mrs [Madge] Watt from Canada, who has undertaken the initial organization of Women’s Institutes in this country, on behalf of the A.O.S. She congratulated Mrs Hooper on the splendid attendance, and said the interest and enthusiasm shown augured well for the success of the scheme in Pershore. She said she understood the result of the canvass amongst the women of Pershore no less than 840 had volunteered to work on the land, and she had also learnt from the Chairman that no less than 400 men had gone from the town to serve the colours, which she considered a marvelous record. The speaker dealt in a very comprehensive manner with the aims and objectives of Women’s Institutes, which she said were to study domestic economy, provide a centre for educational and social intercourse encourage home and local industry, develop co-operative enterprises, and stimulate interest in the agricultural industry.
Worcester Herald Saturday, 25 November 1916.
In Pershore the WI used the Masonic Hall, behind the Angel Inn, as the venue for their monthly meetings, and paid 6/- (£12 today) to have the use of the room, china, gas and a woman who made the tea and tidied up after. The first meeting of the newly formed WI was reported in the Worcester Herald on 22 December 1916:
THE WOMEN’S INSTITUTE
Viscountess Deerhurst, hon, president, took the chair at the first meeting of the Women’s Institute (affiliated to the A.O.S.) held at the Masonic Hall on Friday night. A demonstration of domestic cookery was given by Miss Richards, of the Worcestershire County Council and the hints she gave as to making soups will doubtless prove valuable. Miss Day, the official organiser of women’s work, gave an address on “Women on the Land” showing what great assistance might be rendered by women who were willing and properly organised. There was an exhibition of Red Cross appliances and comforts for the troops, and explanation given of the re-modeling of children’s clothes. The social elements were provided by the older pupils of Miss Brickell’s school.
Worcester Herald, 23 December 1916.
The Evesham Journal noted that at this meeting:
The Hall was crowded, and the keenest interest was taken in the remarks of the lecturer, who gave numerous hints and illustrations, valuable alike to all her hearers no matter of what degree, station or income on “How to make the most of our Food Rations.” A large gas stove (manipulated by Mrs G.F. Hooper, the hon secretary) turned out the complete article, which on being sampled by the judges was pronounced to be absolutely A1 – wonderfully economic for the pocket, nutritious for the body, and lastly in the order of things today, palatable to the taste.
Evesham Journal, 22 December 1916.
The newspaper also pointed out that the: Pershore Women’s Institute was ‘meeting with marked success, which its laudable objectives and excellent management deserves’.